The Ulster Plantation
The majority of Scots who migrated to Northern Ireland came as part of
this organized settlement scheme of 1605-1697.
Plantation settlements were confined to the Province of Old Ulster, in the counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Donegal, Cavan, Fermanagh, and Derry.
As many as 200,000 Scots crossed the North Channel to settle in Ulster in
this 90 year period. County Monaghan, although
parts of Ulster were not a plantation county. The Scots who settled in Monaghan settled there later. The Plantation of Ulster
took place in two stages. The first stage was confined to the twoeastern counties of Antrim and Down. The initiative was taken
by Scottish fortune seekers. Although the British Crown encouraged and co-operated withthose responsible, it was fully a privateventure. The second stage of settlement was far broader in scope, including six counties of Ulster. It was a project of
the state, conceived, planned and closely supervised by the British governments of England and Ireland. The plantations
included settlers from England andScotland, although Scots outnumbered those from England by a ratio of 20 to 1.
The primary purpose of the plantation scheme was to populate the
northerncounties of Ireland with loyal British Protestant subjects, to counterbalance and
dominate the Irish Catholics. Scotland was only too willing to participate. It
was seen as a way to eradicate Scotland of the hordes of lowland Scots who in poverty had turned to a life of marauding and
horse thievery which had become an occupation in itself in the Scottish countryside. Hence in the early years of the Plantation,
the majority of settlers were mainly Lowlanders.
Indeed, receiving landlords in Ireland encouraged the arriving Scots to bring as many horses and cattle as possible to the new colony by whatevermeans. Scotland found this a small price to pay to eliminate the larger problem.
Prior to 1707, Scotland was a distinct Kingdom from England, governed by
its own laws, with its own manners and customs.
To ensure that the arrivingScots could be kept under control from rising up in Ireland in support of their brothers in
Scotland, they were required to take an oath of loyalty to theBritish Crown, as 'denizens'in Ireland. For Scots to become English subjects in Ireland, it was necessary to obtain letters patent of Denization, pay a fine and take an oath of allegiance.
As a denizen, the planter occupied an intermediate position between an alien and a native born subject. He had the privilege of
purchasing land, but heirs born before the date of denization could not inherit the land on the denizens'death. A denizen could
use the law courts but was not qualified to hold any office of trust, civil or military. 'Naturalization'was a second step in the
process, which could only be applied for after 7 years ofdenization. It placed the alen in the same position as if he had been born a British subject. All the obligations and rights of citizenship applied. Those who
refused denization were essentially without rights to property or law.
Scottish Settlement of Counties Antrim and Down
The MacDonald clan from Scotland, who in addition to being mercenary
soldiers in Ireland, settled much of County Antrim in
the 1400's and gradually increased their holdings by 'strong-arm'tactics. King James VI of Scotland had cultivated the Antrim
MacDonald Chief, Sir Randal MacDonald, in order todeprive the rebellious MacDonalds of the Scottish highlands of an obvious source of support, and to keep Irish power in the north of Ireland as weak as possible.
On becoming King of England in 1603, James gave the MacDonalds patent to
their land in Antrim. MacDonald, although a
Roman Catholic,immediately began settling his lands with Lowlanders from Scotland, the first arriving in 1607. By 1630, there
were 800 Scottish males living on theMacDonald estates in Antrim. This would have meant a total Scottish population of about 3000. In County Down, the two leaders of the Scottish settlement were Hugh Montgomery, a Scottish laird
from Braidstone in Ayreshire, and James Hamilton, who had begun his career in Ireland as a school teacher in
Dublin in 1587. The terms of the crown's grant to these two Scots were specified in 1605, and included an obligation to inhabit
the lands with Scots and Englishmen. The planning and settlement was left entirely in the hands of Montgomery and Hamilton.
The first Scottish settlers arrived in 1605-1606. Theirfirst task was to
build cottages and booths out of sods and saplings, then the soil was tilled.
By 1630, there were about 2,700 Scottish males on these twoestates in County Down, of which about 80% were names commonly found in the south-western counties of Scotland. When females and children are
added to the total, there would have been about 5,000 Scots settled in Down by 1630.
The Other Six Planter Counties
In 1610, the Crown developed an elaborate, detailed and rigidly
controlled scheme for the settlement of Armagh, Donegal, Derry. Nine extensive areas in these
six counties were assigned to Scots for plantation. These baronies, or precincts were then
divided into lots of1000, 1500, and 2000 acres, not including bogs and mountains. Those who
received these lots were termed 'undertakers'.
Over each Barony was placed a Chief Undertaker, who was allowed to receive up to 3000 acres. Chief Undertakers were chosed
by the King and included one Duke, one Earl, three Barons,and four Knights. Fifty ordinary Undertakers were then chosen by the Chiefs.
On every 1000 acres received, there had to be 24 able bodied Scots or Englishmen over families.Two of the families were to
be freeholders; three were to be leaseholders, and the remainder could be cottagers. Undertakers had to prepared to muster their
tenants twice a year and toprovide them with weapons. They were to be called on to fight any insurrections of the Irish.
Undertakers were given 3 and one half years to erectfortifications, the type determined by the size of the lot granted. Men of 2000 acres, for example, were required to build a small castle of stone or brick, witha stone wall surrounding it. All Undertakers had to post bonds, as a guarantee that they would comply with the conditions.
Failure to comply resulted in forfeiture of the land. Reporting requirements resulted in the production of countless muster rolls
and maps, some of which have survived. Because ofsurviving muster rolls and maps, the names of most of the original planters can be determined. By 1622, there were between 3000 and 4000 Scottish adults
on the land in these six counties.
The Third Wave
After 1630, Scottish migration to Ireland waned for a decade. Indeed, in
the 1630s, many Scots went home after King Charles
forced the Prayer Book of theChurch of England on the Church of Ireland, thus denying the Scots their form of worship. In
1638, an oath was imposed on the Scots in Ulster, 'The BlackOath', binding them on no account to take up arms against the King. Insulted twice, many returned to Scotland. Even worse, in October 1641, the native Irishbroke out in armed rebellion, slaughtering defenceless men, women, and children. The survivors rushed to the seaports and many went back to Scotland. In
the summer of 1642, Ten thousand Scottish soldiers, many Highlanders, arrived to quell the Irish rebellion. Thousands stayed
on in Ireland,replacing those who had departed, thus expanding the Ulster gene pool to encompass families from all over Scotland.
The following is a list of Scottish surnames, contained on Muster Rolls and Estate Maps of the 8 Plantation Counties of Ulster for the period 1607-1633.Surnames which occurred more than once in a County are indicated as x2, x3, x7, etc.
Adair, Agnew, Barr, Black, Blair x2, Boyd x4, Bozwell x2, Brown,
Brisbane, Burns, Buthill, Colville, Cunningham, Dewar, Dickie, Dobbin, Dunbar, Dunlop
x4, Edmonston x2, Ellis x2, Fenton, Fullerton, Futhie, Haldane, Hamill x2, Hamilton, Hutchins, Johnston, Kennedy x2, Kinnear, Kirkpatrick, Kyd,
Laderdeill, Logan, Luke, Lutfoot, Maxwell, Melvin, Millar, Montgomery, Moneypenny, Moore, Macauley, Macawley, Mcgoogan, Mackay, McNaughton,
McNeill, McPherdrish, McRobert, Niven, O'Greeve, Ritchie, Ross, Shaw x4, Stewart x13, Thompson, Todd, Trane, Tullis, Wallace
Acheson x2, Allen x2, Archeson, Arkles, Bell x2, Brown, Calte, Carcott,
Carothers, Cunningham, Davidson, Deans, Douglas, Dowling, Elliot, Ferguson x2,
Flack, Gamble x2, Gilmore, Granton, Greer, Grier x2, Grindall x2, Hall, Hamilton x5, Hope, Johnston, Kirk, Leitch, Maxwell x2, Moffatt, McKernan, Parker,
Pringle, Rae, Richardson, Ritchie, Shirloe, Sturgeon x2, Syne, Trimble, Watson, Walshe, Walker, Wilkie, Wilson
Anderson, Aughmooty x2, Bailie x5, Barber, Barbour, Coch, Creighton,
Cutherbertson, Davyson, Deans, Finlay x2, Hamilton x3, Kennedy, Lother x2,
Miller, Musgrave, McCullagh, Price, Rae, Steele, Stevenson, Stewart, Taylor, Tate, Udney, Wylie
Crawford, Cathcart, Creighton x3, Cunningham x5, Chambers, Cranston,
Dunbar x4, Deinbone, Erving, Elliot, Gibb, Gibson, Greer, Hall x3, Hamilton x5,
Heigate, Irwin, Johnson, Lainge, Lindsay, Mitchell, Montgomery, Patterson, Smellham, Somervell, Stewart, Watson, Weir
Anderson, Andrews, Bridger, Buchanan, Cahoon x2, Cawder, Colter, Coulter,
Crawford, Crockett, Cunningham x2, Dyke, Edward, English, Forester,
Fullerton, Grant, Gray, Handcock, Johnston, Keeland, Kennedy, Kyle, Lindsay, Logy, Lynne, Lyon x2, Magghee, Maxwell x2, Midell, Moncreig, Moore,
Morton, Mure, McAlexander, McLelland, Mackclellane, Mackleland x3, McLornan, McNeile, Palmer, Patterson, Polk, Powr, Redgate, Russell, Sempell,
Thomas, Thompson, Thomson, Young
Abercrombie, Adair x3, Adams, Agnew x2, Aicken, Allen, Anderson x2,
Andrews, Bailie x2, Barkley, Barklie x3, Bayly, Beatty, Blackwood, Blair x5, Boyd
x3, Brackley, Brown, Carlile, Carmichael, Carr, Carson, Cathcart x2, Catherwood, Chambers, Chermsides, Cooper, Cowper, Craig, Crawford x3, Crear,
Cummings, Cunningham x13, Danielston, Davidson, Dick, Dickson, Dodds, Douglas, Drennan, Drummond, Dufferin, Dunbar, Dunleath, Dunlop x3, Echlin
x4, Edmonston, Forsith, Frazer, Galloway, Galt, Galway, Gelston, Gemmil, Glen, Greenshields, Hamilton x14, Hare, Harper x2, Harvey x2, Hilton, Hogg,
Howie, Howson, Hunter, Innes, Julius, Keevet, Kelly, Kelso, Kennedy x7, Kerr, Kilpatrick, Kirkpatrick, Kyle, Kylr, Leckey, Leslie, Lindsay, Lloyd, Logan
x2, Magee, Martin, Mathyson, Maxwell x5, Millar, Monett, MOneypenny x3, Montgomery x18, Moon, Moore x7, Mowlane, Murray x2, McBurney,
McBride, McCappin, McCartney, McCashin x2, McClelland, McCleery, McComb, McCrae, McCreedy, McCullen, McCurry, McDonnell, McDougall x3,
McDowell x2, McEwen, McGarry, McGee, McGifford, McIlevrath, McIlveyne, McKay, McKee, McLarnan, McLellan x4, McLean, McMakene, McMaster,
McMillan, McMullen, McNabb, Nesbitt, Nevin, Nugent, Orr, Patrick, Patterson, Peacock, Peebles, Pollock x2, Read, Reid x2, Reynolds, Robb, Ross x5,
Rudd x2, Rutherford, Scott, Semple, Seton, Shaw x3, Spier, Stanehouse, Stanhouse, Stevenson, Stewart x2, Tate, Thomson x2, Trail, Waddell, Walker,
Wallace, Wanchop, Wardlaw, Wardlow, Watson, Selsh, Williamson, Wilson x4, Wylie, Wyms, Young
Adair, Alexander, Allen x2, Arnett x2, Barkley, Barry, Bauld, Black,
Blair, Boyd, Boyle x2, Brisbane, Brown, Bruce, Bryce. Buchanan, Burne, Calwell x2,
Campbell x2, Carr x3, Cloggie, Colguhoun x2, Coohoone x2, Crawford, Cunningham x15, Dick, Donnell, Dougal, Dunne x3, Dunsayer, Ekyn, Ewart,
Flemming, Forecheade, Fullerton, Fulton, Fyieff, Gaate (Galt), Galbreth, Filmour, Glass, Glen, Gordon, Grynney, Hall, Hamilton x11, Harper, Henrison,
Henry, Homes, Hood, Huggins, Hunter, Hutchins, Johnston, Julius, Kennedy, Kernes, Kilpatrick x2, Knox, Laycock, Leckie, Leitch, Leslie, Lindsay,
Lockhard, Lodge, Machell, Machen, Martin, Maxwell, Montgomery, Moore, Moorhead, Murray, McAlison, McAuld, McCamuel, McClairne, McCullough,
McErdy, McIlcheny, McIntyre, McKay, McKinney, McKym, McLintagh, McLoghery, McLoran, McMath, Nelson, Nesbitt, Orr, Patterson, Patoun, Patton,
Peere (Pery), Pont, Purveyance, Rankin, Ritchie, Robin, Robson, Roger, Sawyer, Scott, Sempell, Semple x4, Simpson, Smelley, Smith x3, Smythe x2,
Spence, Stephenson, Stevenson, Stevin, Stewart x4, Sutherland, Teyse (Tees), Thompson, Thomson, Valantyne, Vance, Watson, Wilson, Witherspoon,
Wood x2, Young
Abercorn, Acheson, Anderson, Andrews, Arnett x2, Barkley, Bean, Boyle,
Brown, Burne, Carmichael, Carslaw, Cathcart, Colville, Cooper, Craig, Creire
(Greer), Crosby x2, Demstar, Doninge, Drum, Drummond, Elpinstone, Ferry, Fingleton, Gamble, Gibbe, Gibson, Granger, Grime, Gryme, Hamilton x15,
Hatrick, Henderson x2, Hendrie, Hexburn, Highgate x2, Holmes, Karns, Kennedy x2, Kyle, Lawson, Lindsay x3, Love, Lynn x2, Mackerson, Maxwell x2,
Means x2, Meen, Millar, Montgomery x8, Morne, Morrison, Morrow, Muntreeth, Murdogh, Murduff, McAulay, McCreaghan x2, McCrery, McCullough,
McGee, McGowan, McGraghan, McGunshenour, McIlmurry, McIntyre, McKaundy, McKearn, McKittrick, Newburgh, Parke, Patterson, Pooke, Pringle,
Reade, Richardson, Robinson, Saunderson, Sharpe, Simpson, Smythe, Spottiswood x4, Stephenson x5, Steward x3, Stewart x7, Symington, Wallace, Wilie,
Wilson, Wood, Wooley, Wright, Young
(1) Familia, Number 11, 1995, Ulster Genealogical and Historical Guild,
Belfast. Article: The Scots in Ulster - Their Denization and Naturalization 1605
-1634, by Rev. David Stewart; (2) Family Links, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan. 1981, magazine of the Irish Genealogical Association, Belfast. Article: Surnames of the
Upper Ards, Co. Down; (3) Scottish Colloquim Proceedings, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 1969.
From the website of P O'Rourke